Main ecosystem type: 

Degraded open (dwarf) shrub savannah; shrubland with annual, generalist plant species of low grazing value in plains, dwarf-shrub communities at pediments, sparsely vegetated hillslopes

Main land use: 

open access pasture, high grazing pressure by goats, no seasonal restrictions or stocking limitations

Main degradation driver: 

Severe overgrazing by goats for decades

Restoration actions applied: 

One grazing exclosure: six permanent 10 m x 10 m plots inside and outside exclosure. Monitoring of species composition, cover, and growth rates of perennial woody species since 2006 ongoing


Municipality of Keetmanshoop; Extension Office Keetmanshoop; Veterinarian Service Keetmanshoop; Tiervlei Waterpoint Association; Traditional Authorities